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Govedarska proizvodnja - NR Kina i Republika Srbija

dc.creatorAleksić, S.
dc.creatorSunfang
dc.creatorJingming, Z.
dc.creatorMeiyu, Q.
dc.creatorJiabo, W.
dc.creatorLiuli
dc.creatorLiudi
dc.creatorPetrović, Milan M.
dc.creatorOstojić Andrić, Dušica
dc.creatorNikšić, Dragan
dc.date.accessioned2018-12-14T15:00:15Z
dc.date.available2018-12-14T15:00:15Z
dc.date.issued2012
dc.identifier.issn1450-9156
dc.identifier.urihttp://r.istocar.bg.ac.rs/handle/123456789/339
dc.description.abstractThe paper presents data on the cattle industry in the People's Republic of China and the Republic of Serbia. China is the third largest dairy producing country and the third largest beef producing country in the world. In 2011, the dairy cow population in China was 14.4 million. Chinese dairy breed is mainly obtained by grading hybridization from Holstein, Simmental, etc. which were introduced from foreign countries, and local cattle breeds for long time to form the offspring with stable genetic characteristics. Currently, the dairy breeds cultured in China mainly include Chinese Holstein, Chinese Simmental, dairy buffalo, Brown cattle, Sanhe cattle, etc. Chinese Holstein accounts for about 80% of the total dairy cattle. From 2000 to 2007, Chinese beef production has always been in a rapid growth phase, with an increase from 5.054 million tons to 6.134 million tons, reached a historical highest level of 6.355 million tons in 2009, but rapidly declined since 2009, and dropped to 5 million tons in 2011. In addition, the amounts of reproduction cow and beef cattle in stock were also declined. In 2011, there were about 32.7 million beef cattle slaughtered, and the beef cattle population was about 80 million at the end of 2011, the beef carcass yield was about 5.5 million tons, the national average carcass weight was 201.5kg/cow, and the production value of beef cattle was about 200.75 billion Yuan. Currently, the amount of reproduction cow in stock declined sharply; the contradiction between the lack of cattle resource and the continued growth of beef consumption is more and more serious. Chinese dairy farming is mainly concentrated in the North, Northeast and Northwest of China, the dairy cows population in Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang, Heilongjiang and Hebei account for 60% of the total population in China; the beef cattle is mainly concentrated in rural areas as Henan, Shandong and Hebei provinces, accounting for 80% of the national amount of slaughtered beef cattle. In recent years, the superior regions of beef cattle breeding have been gradually shifted towards north and southwest. The beef cattle industry in Heilongjiang Province, Sichuan Province, Yunnan Province and Guizhou Province has been developed rapidly. The beef cattle breeding in pastoral areas are mainly concentrated in Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang and Gansu province. Cattle production is important branch of livestock production in Republic of Serbia. Current situation in cattle production is not satisfactory in regard to the production per head and number of heads which has been constantly decreasing in recent years. Based on official statistical data, current situation in cattle production is considered as unfavourable (Bureau of Statistics of Republic of Serbia). Number of cattle in 2011 was 936.000 heads and constantly decreasing over the last 11 years. In this period, number of cattle is reduced by 18%, and number of cows and pregnant heifers by 14%. Data on number and categories of cattle also indicate considerable reduction, so category of cattle at the age of 1 to 2 years has been reduced by 24.5%, and number of calves by 29.2%. Production of cow milk is relatively steady. In 2011 milk production was 1.434.000liters. This can be explained by increased production of milk per cow. Genetic progress in milk traits was achieved by utilization of progeny tested bulls on milk and increased scope of artificial insemination of cows and heifers. Production of meat is in constant decrease which is consequence of reduction of total number of cattle as well as insufficient number of slaughterhouses with EU certificate. Meat production in 2011 was 81.000 t. Our country, although without developed cattle breeding, has been traditional exporter of beef, meat products and fattening young cattle into many countries, even the most developed ones, for instance Italy and Greece. Export of beef was in expansion prior to Italy (1974) and Greece (1980) entering the EEC. For instance, in year 1974, we exported 50.500 t/annually on Italian market, i.e. in 1980 51.310 t and there were 24 registered slaughterhouses with EEC certificate. Today, there are only a few slaughterhouses with EU certificate, and approved export quota of close to 8.000 t of beef we cannot realize. Total production of milk is 1,434.000 l. Cattle production is expected to provide high quality products for export, primarily beef and quality cheeses with defined origin and quality.en
dc.description.abstractU radu su predstavljeni podaci o govedarskoj proizvodnji u narodnoj Republici Kini i Republici Srbiji. Kina je treća zemlja na svetu po proizvodnji mleka i treća zemlja na svetu po proizvodnji goveđeg mesa. 2011. Godine, populacija mlečnih goveda u kini je iznosila 14,4 miliona grla. Kineska mlečna rasa govedase uglavnom dobija hibridizacijom grlima holštajn, simentalske i drugih rasa, koje su uvežene iz inostranstva, i lokalnih rasa goveda kako bi se dobio podmladak stabilnih genetskih karakteristika. Trenutno se u Kini gaje grla rase kineski holštajn, kineski simentalac, mlečni bivoli, grla smeđe rase, goveda rase sahne, itd. U periodu od 2000 do 2007 godine, proizvodnja goveđeg mesa u Kini je bila u brzom usponu i porastu, sa povećanjem sa 5.054 miliona tona na 6.134 miliona tona, da bi dostigla istorijski najviši nivo od 6.355 miliona tona 2009. Godine, ali od tada je u drastičnom padu gde se 2011. godine beleži s proizvodnja od 5 miliona tona. Takođe, dolazi do smanjenja broja reproduktivnih/priplodnih krava i tovnih goveda u zapatu. Godine 2011., zaklano je oko 32.7 miliona tovnih goveda, a populacija tovnih grla goveda je na kraju 2011. godine iznosila 80 miliona, prinos mesa je bio oko 5.5 miliona tona, a prosečna težina trupa na nacionalnom nivou 201.5kg/kravi, a proizvodna vrednost tovnih goveda je bila oko 200.75 milijardi juana. Trenutno, broj reproduktivnih/priplodnih krava u zapatu je u drastičnom padu; kontradikcija između nedostatka resursa goveda i stalno rastuće potrošnje goveđeg mesa je sve ozbiljnija. Kinesko mlečno govedarstvo je koncentrovano u severnom, severno-istočnom i severno-zapadnom delu Kine, populacija mlečnih goveda u unutrašnjosti Mongolije, Xinjiangu, Heilongjiangu i Hebeiu i predstavlja 60% ukupne populacije mlečnih goveda u Kini; tovna goveda se uglavnom gaje u ruralnim regionima - provincijama Henan, Šandong i Hebei, i predstavljaju 80% ukupno zaklanih grla goveda na nacionalnom nivou. Zadnjih godina, regioni koji su nadmoćni sa stanovišta proizvodnje tovnih junadi se postepeno pomeraju ka severu i jugo-zapadu. Proizvodnja tovnih junadi u provincijama Heilongjiang, Sičuan, Junan i Guizhou se razvija velika brzinom. Proizvodnja tovnih junadi u pašnjačkim regionima je koncentrisana u unutrašnjoj Mongoliji, provincijama Xinjiang i Gansu. Govedarstvo je važna grana stočarstva u Republici Srbiji. Trenutno stanje u govedarstvu nije zadovoljavajuće sa stanovišta proizvodnje po grlu i broju grla koji je u stalnom padu zadnjih godina. Na osnovu zvaničnih statističkih podataka, trenutno stanje u govedarstvu se smatra veoma nepovoljnim (Zavod za Statistiku Republike Srbije). Broj goveda u 2011 je bio 936.000 grla sa trendom kontinuiranog pada zadnjih 11 godina. Tokom ovog perioda, broj grla goveda se smanjio za 18% a broj krava i steonih junica za 14%. Podaci o broju i kategorijama goveda takođe ukazuju na značajno smanjenje, pa je tako kategorija goveda uzrasta od 1 do 2 godine smanjenja za 24.5%, a broj teladi za 29.2%. Proizvodnja mleka je relativno stabilna. Godine 2011, proizvodnja mleka je bila 1.434.000 litara. To se može objasniti povećanjem proizvodnje mleka po grlu. Genetski progres osobina mlečnosti je postignut korišćenjem progeno testiranih bikova na osobine mlečnosti i povećanjem obima veštačkog osemenjavanja krava i junica. Proizvodnja mesa je u konstantnom padu, što je posledica smanjenja ukupnog broja goveda kao i nedovoljnog broja klanica sa EU sertifikatom. Proizvodnja mesa u 2011. godini je bila 81.000 t. Srbija, iako bez razvijenog govedarstva, je bila tradicionalni izvoznik goveđeg odn. junećeg mesa, proizvoda od mesa i tovne junadi u mnoge zemlje, čak i najrazvijenije, npr. Italiju i Grčku. Eksport junetine je bio u ekspanziji pre ulaska Italije (1974) i Grčke (1980) u EEZ. Na primer, 1974. godine, godišnje je izvoženo 50.500 t na italijansko tržište, odn 1980. godine, 51.310 t i u Srbiji je bilo 24 registrovane klanice sa EEC sertifikatom. Danas, postoji samo nekoliko klanica sa EU sertifikatom, a odobrena kvota za izvoz mesa od 8.000 t junetine ne može da se realizuje. Ukupna proizvodnja mleka je 1.434.000 l. Očekuje se da govedarska proizvodnja obezbedi kvalitetne proizvode za izvoz, na prvom mestu juneće meso i kvalitetne sireve definisanog porekla i kvaliteta.sr
dc.publisherInstitute for Animal Husbandry, Belgrade
dc.relationinfo:eu-repo/grantAgreement/MESTD/Technological Development (TD or TR)/31053/RS//
dc.rightsopenAccess
dc.rights.urihttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.sourceBiotechnology in Animal Husbandry
dc.subjectcattle breedingen
dc.subjectmilk productionen
dc.subjectmeat productionen
dc.subjectthe National Republic Chinaen
dc.subjectthe Republic of Serbiaen
dc.titleCattle production: PR China and Republic of Serbiaen
dc.titleGovedarska proizvodnja - NR Kina i Republika Srbijasr
dc.typearticle
dc.rights.licenseBY
dcterms.abstractОстојић-Aндрић, Душица; Никшић, Драган; Aлексић, С.; Петровић, Милан М.; Лиули; Лиуди; Сунфанг; Јингминг, З.; Меиyу, Q.; Јиабо, W.; Говедарска производња - НР Кина и Република Србија; Говедарска производња - НР Кина и Република Србија;
dc.citation.volume28
dc.citation.issue4
dc.citation.spage635
dc.citation.epage648
dc.citation.other28(4): 635-648
dc.citation.rankM24
dc.identifier.doi10.2298/BAH1204635A
dc.identifier.rcubKonv_692
dc.identifier.fulltexthttp://r.istocar.bg.ac.rs//bitstream/id/2079/337.pdf
dc.type.versionpublishedVersion


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