Contamination of cereals with aflatoxins, metabolites of fungi Aspergillus flavus
Kontaminacija žita aflatoksinima, metabolitima plesni Aspergillus flavus
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In stored cereals besides other microorganisms, Aspergillus flavus fungi, well known aflatoxin producers, can also be found. When these feedingstuffs, as main material for feed production, are very contaminated with fungi and mycotoxins, they induce different health disturbances both in animals and humans. However, the presence of fungi is not a proof of mycotoxins contamination because thay are produced in specific conditions. By regulating this environmental situation, it is possible to prevent contamination with mycotoxins to a certain extant, as well as their expansion and their threat to health. In this paper results of microbiological and mycotoxicological examinations of 968 cereal samples (corn, wheat, bran, silage, barley, soybean, sorghum) are presented. Samples were sent from different localities in Serbia during 5 years period. At the microbiological examination of cereals it was noticed that 675 samples did not fulfilled legislative requirements regarding fungi content and... the biggest difference was present in naturally dried corn. Usually were found Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp., Fusarim spp., Mucor spp., while A. flavus was present in 154 samples. It was also noticed that aflatoxin was present in 149 samples up to 0,05 mg/kg, what was still in accordance with the actual regulations.
Na osnovu rezultata mikrobiološke i mikotoksikološke analize 968 uzoraka žita (kukuruz, pšenica, mekinje, silaža, ječam, soja, sirak) koji su pristizali u ovlašćenu laboratoriju na kontrolu sa teritorije Republike Srbije u toku petogodišnjeg perioda utvrđeno je da sadržaj gljiva (plesni) kod 675 uzoraka žita ne odgovara uslovima Pravilnika o maksimalnim količinama štetnih materija i sastojaka u stočnoj hrani (Službeni list SFRJ, 1990), a najveći stepen odstupanja utvrđen je u prirodno sušenom kukuruzu. Determinacijom gljiva najčešće izolovane vrste su: Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp., Fusarim spp., Mucor spp., a u 154 uzoraka identifikovano je prisustvo vrste Aspergillus flavus. Ispitivanjem sadržaja aflatoksina, u 149 uzoraka žita, ustanovljen je aflatoksin do koncentracije 0,05 mg/kg (ppm), što je u granicama dozvoljenim važećom regulativom.
Keywords:aflatoxins / cereals / fungi
Source:Biotechnology in Animal Husbandry, 2009, 25, 5-6-2, 1203-1208
- Institute for Animal Husbandry, Belgrade